Computer Hardware Design Archive

USB hubs and dedicated-function devices–issues that may be of concern

There are many of the USB hubs that allow multiple USB devices to be connected to the one USB port. As well, some devices like external hard disks and keyboards are being equipped with their own USB hubs.

Brother HL-L8350CDW colour laser printer USB walk-up socket

USB sockets on printers like this Brother colour laser won’t easily support USB hub operation even if they have a use case for that application

The use of a USB hub is also used as an approach for creating multiple-function USB peripheral devices. Similarly, a device with multiple USB sockets for connecting peripheral devices would have the socket collection seen as a “root hub” if one controller chipset looks after that socket collection. It can also appeal to dedicated-function devices like routers, NAS devices, home entertainment or automotive infotainment setups offered in the aftermarket context where the manufacturer sees these devices as the hub of a system of devices.

USB hubs are divided between the “bus-powered” types powered by the host device and the “self-powered” types that have their own power-supply. The latter type can be a USB device like a printer or external hard disk that has its own power supply or a “bus-powered” USB hub that has a DC input socket for a power supply so it can become a “self-powered” hub.

Belkin USB hub

A typical USB hub which may cause problems with concurrently running multiple devices from a dedicated-function device

The idea of implementing a USB hub with a dedicated-function device can have a strong appeal with a variety of device types and combinations. For example, a router would implement a USB port for connecting a USB Mass-Storage Device like an external hard disk so it can become its own file server but also see this port for use with a USB mobile-broadband modem as a failover Internet-connection option. Or a business-grade printer which supports PIN-protected “secure job release” may use a keypad compliant to USB Human-Interface-Device specifications connected to its USB port which facilitates “walk-up” printing from a USB memory key. Even a Smart TV or set-top box may use the one USB port for viewing files from one or more Mass-Storage devices and / or work with a Webcam and a software client to be a group videophone terminal.

Technics Grand Class G30 hi-fi system with media server press image courtesy of Panasonic

USB sockets on consumer-electronics equipment may not properly support USB hubs

To the same extent, this could be about a setup involving a multifunction peripheral device. An example of this would be a USB keyboard with an integrated pointing device like a trackpad, trackball or thumbstick being connected to a games console or set-top box, with this setup allowing for the pointing device serving to navigate the user interface while the keyboard answers text-entry needs.

A problem that can occur with using USB hubs or hub-equipped USB peripherals with dedicated-function devices like printers, NAS devices or consumer-AV equipment is that such devices may not handle USB hubs consistently. For example, a USB keyboard that has a hub function may not be properly detected by a set-top box or games console.

This can happen due to a power limit placed on the host’s USB port, which can affect many devices connected behind a bus-powered USB hub. Or a very common reality is that the firmware for most dedicated-function devices is written to expect a single USB device having only one function to be connected to the device’s USB port.

What needs to happen is for a dedicated-function device to identify and enumerate each and every USB peripheral device it can properly support that is connected to its USB port whether directly or via a hub. This would be based on how much power is comfortably available across the USB bus whether provided by the host or downstream self-powered USB hubs. It is in addition to the device classes that are supported by the host device to fulfil its functions.

I previously touched on this issue in relationship to USB storage devices that contain multiple logical volumes being handled by dedicated-function devices. This was to address a USB memory key or external hard disk partitioned to multiple logical volumes, a multiple-slot memory-card adaptor presenting each slot as its own drive letter or devices that have fixed storage and removeable storage. There, I was raising how a printer or a stereo system with USB recording and playback could handles these USB devices properly.

Then the device may need to communicate error conditions concerning these setups. One of these would be a insufficient-power condition where there isn’t enough power available to comfortably run all the devices connected to the USB port via the hub. This may be with situations like external hard disks connected to the host device via a bus-powered hub along with other peripherals or a self-powered hub that degrades to bus-powered operation due to its “wall-wart” AC adaptor falling out of the power outlet or burning out. Here, such a status may be indicated through a flashing light on a limited-interface device like a router or a USB “too many devices” or “not enough power” message on devices that have displays.

If the USB bus exists with the hub in place but none of the connected devices are supported by the host’s firmware, you could see an error message with “unsupported devices” or “charging only” appear on the device. Otherwise, all supported devices would then be identified and enumerated no matter where they exist in the USB chain.

In this kind of situation, there would be an emphasis on using class-driver software for the various USB Device Classes that are relevant to the device’s functionality although there are some situations like USB modems may call for device-specific software support.

What would be essential for the USB hub or multifunction device to work properly with a dedicated-function device is that the device’s firmware has to support the USB Hub device class, including providing proper and consistent error handling. To the same extent, AC-powered devices like printers or home-entertainment equipment would need to provide a power output at its USB ports equivalent to what is offered with a regular desktop computer’s USB ports.

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Dell takes a leaf out of Detroit’s book with their budget gaming laptops

Articles

Dell G7 15 gaming laptop press picture courtesy of Dell USA

Dell G Series laptops – to be the “pony cars” of the gaming laptop scene

Dell’s new G series laptops pair gaming specs with a cheap plastic chassis | The Verge

Dell rebrands Inspiron gaming laptops to G Series, serves up four new models | Digital Trends

Dell’s G Series laptops are priced for every gamer | PC World

Dell’s Renamed Low-Cost Gaming Laptops are Thinner and Faster Than Before | Gizmodo

From the horse’s mouth

Dell

Product Page

Press Release

My Comments

Ford Mustang fastback at car show

Dell used the same approach as Ford did in the 1960s with the original Mustang

During the heyday of the “good cars” that was represented through the 1960s and 1970s, the major vehicle builders worked on various ways to approach younger drivers who were after something that was special.

One of these was to offer a “pony car” which was a specifically-designed sporty-styled two-door car that had a wide range of power, trim and other options yet had a base model that was affordable to this class of buyer. Another was to place in to the product lineup for a standard family-car model a two-door coupe and / or a “sports sedan” / “sports saloon” that is a derivative of that standard family car and built on that same chassis but known under an exciting name with examples being the Holden Monaro or the Plymouth Duster. This would be available as something that young people could want to have when they are after something impressive.

Both these approaches were made feasible through the use of commonly-produced parts rather than special parts for most of the variants or option classes. As well, there was the option for vehicle builders to run with variants that are a bit more special such as racing-homologation specials as well as providing “up-sell” options for customers to vary their cars with.

The various laptop computer manufacturers are trying to work on a product class that can emulate what was achieved with these cars. Here, it is to achieve a range of affordable high-performance computers that can appeal to young buyers who want to play the latest “enthusiast-grade” games on.

Dell Inspiron 15 Gaming laptop

The Dell Inspiron 15 7000 Gaming laptop – to be superseded by the Dell G Series

One of the steps that has taken place was to offer a high-performance “gaming-grade” variant of a standard laptop model like the Dell Inspiron 15 Gaming laptop, one of which I had reviewed. This approach is similar to offering the “Sport” or “GT” variant of a common family-car model, where the vehicle is equipped with a performance-tuned powertrain like the Ford Falcon GT cars.

But Dell have come very closer to the mark associated with either the “pony cars” or the sporty-styled vehicles derived from the standard family-car model with the release of the Inspiron G series of affordable gamer-grade laptops. Here, they released the G3, G5 and G7 models with baseline models being equipped with traditional hard disks and small RAM amounts. But these were built on a very similar construction to the affordable mainstream laptops.

These models are intended to replace the Inspiron 15 Gaming series of performance laptops and it shows that they want to cater to the young gamers who may not afford the high-end gaming-focused models. As well, the G Series name tag is intended to replace the Inspiron nametag due to its association with Dell’s mainstream consumer laptop products which takes the “thunder” out of owning a special product. This is similar to the situation I called out earlier with sporty vehicles that are derivatives of family-car models having their own nameplate.

The G3, which is considered the entry-level model, comes with a 15” or a 17” Full-HD screen and is available in a black or blue finish with the 15” model also available in white. It also has a standard USB-C connection with Thunderbolt 3 as an extra-cost “upsell” option along with Bluetooth 5 connectivity. This computer is the thinnest of the series but doesn’t have as much ventilation as the others.

The G5 which is the step-up model, is a thicker unit with rear-facing ventilation and is finished in black or red. This, like the G7 is equipped with Thunderbolt 3 for an external graphics module along with Bluetooth 4 and has the ability for one to buy a fingerprint scanner as an option. Also it comes only with a 15” screen available in 4K or Full HD resolution.

The G7 is the top-shelf model totally optimised for performance. This is a thicker unit with increased ventilation and implements high-clocked CPU and RAM that is tuned for performance. It has similar connectivity to the G5 along with similar display technology and is the only computer in the lineup to implement the highly-powerful Intel Core i9 CPU that was launched as the high-performance laptop CPU as part of the latest Coffee Lake lineup.

All the computers will be implementing the latest Coffee Lake lineup of Intel high-performance Core CPUs, being the Core i5-8300HQ or Core i7-8750H processors depending on the specification. In the case of the high-performance G7, the Intel Core i9-8950HQ CPU will be offered as an option for high performance.

They all use standalone NVIDIA graphics processors to paint the picture on the display with a choice between the GeForce GTX1060 with Max-Q, the GeForce GTX1050Ti or the GeForce GTX1050. What is interesting about the GeForce GTX1060 with Max-Q is that it is designed to run with reduced power consumption and thermal output, thus allowing it to run cool in slim notebooks and do away with fans. But the limitation here is that the computer doesn’t have the same kind of graphics performance compared to a fully-fledged GeForce GTX1060 setup which would be deployed in the larger gaming laptops.

Lower-tier packages will run with mechanical hard drives while the better packages will offer use of hybrid hard disks (increased solid-state cache), solid-state drives or dual-drive setups with the system drive (C drive with operating system) being a solid-state device and data being held on a 1Tb hard disk known as the D drive.

I would see these machines serving as a high-performance solo computer for people like college / university students who want to work with high-end games or put their foot in to advanced graphics work. As well, I wouldn’t put it past Lenovo, HP and others to run with budget-priced high-performance gaming laptops in order to compete with Dell in courting this market segment.

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The trends affecting personal-computer graphics infrastructure

Article

AMD Ryzen CPUs with integrated Vega graphics are great for budget-friendly PC gaming | Windows Central

My Comments

Dell Inspiron 13 7000 2-in-1 Intel 8th Generation CPU at QT Melbourne hotel

Highly-portable computers of the same ilk as the Dell Inspiron 13 7000 2-in-1 will end up with highly-capable graphics infrastructure

A major change that will affect personal-computer graphics subsystems is that those subsystems that have a highly-capable graphics processor “wired-in” on the motherboard will be offering affordable graphics performance for games and multimedia.

One of the reasons is that graphics subsystems that are delivered as an expansion card are becoming very pricey, even ethereally expensive, thanks to the Bitcoin gold rush. This is because the GPUs (graphics processors) on the expansion cards are being used simply as dedicated computational processors that are for mining Bitcoin. This situation is placing higher-performance graphics out of the reach of most home and business computer users who want to benefit from this feature for work or play.

But the reality is that we will be asking our computers’ graphics infrastructure to realise images that have a resolution of 4K or more with high colour depths and dynamic range on at least one screen. There will even be the reality that everyone will be dabbling in games or advanced graphics work at some point in their computing lives and even expecting a highly-portable or highly-compact computer to perform this job.

Integrated graphics processors as powerful as economy discrete graphics infrastructure

One of the directions Intel is taking is to design their own integrated graphics processors that use the host computer’s main RAM memory but have these able to serve with the equivalent performance of a baseline dedicated graphics processor that uses its own memory. It is also taking advantage of the fact that most recent computers are being loaded with at least 4Gb system RAM, if not 8Gb or 16Gb. This is to support power economy when a laptop is powered by its own battery, but these processors can even support some casual gaming or graphics tasks.

Discrete graphics processors on the same chip die as the computer’s main processor

Intel Corporation is introducing the 8th Gen Intel Core processor with Radeon RX Vega M Graphics in January 2018. It is packed with features and performance crafted for gamers, content creators and fans of virtual and mixed reality. (Credit: Walden Kirsch/Intel Corporation)

This Intel CPU+GPU chipset will be the kind of graphics infrastructure for portable or compact enthusiast-grade or multimedia-grade computers

Another direction that Intel and AMD are taking is to integrate a discrete graphics subsystem on the same chip die (piece of silicon) as the CPU i.e. the computer’s central “brain” to provide “enthusiast-class” or “multimedia-class” graphics in a relatively compact form factor. It is also about not yielding extra heat nor about drawing on too much power. These features are making it appeal towards laptops, all-in-one computers and low-profile desktops such as the ultra-small “Next Unit of Computing” or consumer / small-business desktop computers, where it is desirable to have silent operation and highly-compact housings.

Both CPU vendors are implementing AMD’s Radeon Vega graphics technology on the same die as some of their CPU designs.

Interest in separate-chip discrete graphics infrastructure

Dell Inspiron 15 Gaming laptop

The Dell Inspiron 15 7000 Gaming laptop – the kind of computer that will maintain traditional soldered-on discrete graphics infrastructure

There is still an interest in discrete graphics infrastructure that uses its own silicon but soldered to the motherboard. NVIDIA and AMD, especially the former, are offering this kind of infrastructure as a high-performance option for gaming laptops and compact high-performance desktop systems; along with high-performance motherboards for own-build high-performance computer projects such as “gaming rigs”. The latter case would typify a situation where one would build the computer with one of these motherboards but install a newer better-performing graphics card at a later date.

Sonnet eGFX Breakaway Puck integrated-chipset external graphics module press picture courtesy of Sonnet Systems

Sonnet eGFX Breakaway Puck integrated-chipset external graphics module – the way to go for ultraportables

This same option is also being offered as part of the external graphics modules that are being facilitated thanks to the Thunderbolt 3 over USB-C interface. The appeal of these modules is that a highly-portable or highly-compact computer can benefit from better graphics at a later date thanks to one plugging in one of these modules. Portable-computer users can benefit from the idea of working with high-performance graphics where they use it most but keep the computer lightweight when on the road.

Graphics processor selection in the operating system

For those computers that implement multiple graphics processors, Microsoft making it easier to determine which graphics processor an application is to use with the view of allowing the user to select whether the application should work in a performance or power-economy mode. This feature is destined for the next major iteration of Windows 10.

Here, it avoids the issues associated with NVIDIA Optimus and similar multi-GPU-management technologies where this feature is managed with an awkward user interface. They are even making sure that a user who runs external graphics modules has that same level of control as one who is running a system with two graphics processors on the motherboard.

What I see now is an effort by the computer-hardware industry to make graphics infrastructure for highly-compact or highly-portable computers offer similar levels of performance to baseline or mid-tier graphics infrastructure available to traditional desktop computer setups.

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Dell premieres the XPS 15 2-in-1 that ticks the boxes

Articles

Dell XPS 15 2-in-1 convertible press picture courtesy of Dell

The first laptop with the CPU/GPU combo chipset from Intell

CES 2018: Dell brings updated 2018 XPS 15 2-in-1 with Radeon Graphics | WinCentral

Dell’s new XPS 15 2-in-1 has a ‘maglev’ keyboard | The Verge

Dell XPS 15 2-in-1 hands-on: A sleek showcase of firsts | Engadget

From the horse’s mouth

Dell

Press Release highlighting what was shown at CES 2018

My Comments

Dell used the Consumer Electronics Show 2018 to premiere a 15” ultraportable 2-in-1 convertible laptop that underscores what Intel’s new G-series CPU / GPU combination chips are about.

Intel Corporation is introducing the 8th Gen Intel Core processor with Radeon RX Vega M Graphics in January 2018. It is packed with features and performance crafted for gamers, content creators and fans of virtual and mixed reality. (Credit: Walden Kirsch/Intel Corporation)

This is what drives the Dell XPS 15 2-in-1

This laptop, which is the smallest thinnest 15” portable, comes in with a thickness of 16mm when either closed or folded over as a tablet. This is brought about due to the implementation of the single-die chip which has the Intel 8th Generation Core CPU and an AMD Radeon RX Vega M GL graphics processor with 4Gb of display memory to “paint” with. The computer press see this setup being equivalent to an NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 dedicated GPU.

It is allowing Dell to pitch the XPS 15 2-in-1 as an “enthusiast-grade” lightweight 2-in-1 laptop with the kind of performance that would please people who are into multimedia and animation work or want to play most of the newer games.

Another influence is the use of a “maglev” keyboard which uses magnets to provide the tactile equivalent of a keyboard with a deeper throw. But this allows also for a slim computer design.

The new Dell XPS 15 2-in-1 computer can be configured with an Intel Core i5 as the baseline option or an Intel Core i7 as the performance option. The touchscreen can be a Full HD display as a baseline option or a 4K UltraHD display with the 100% Adobe colour gamut for the premium option.

The RAM available ex-factory can range between 8Gb to 16Gb while the storage capacity that is available ex-factory ranges from 128Gb to 1Tb on a solid-state drive. Personally, I would like to see the minimum storage capacity available being 256Gb. The only removable storage option integrated in this computer is a microSD card slot, which may require you to use a microSD card and SD card adaptor in your camera or carry a USB-C SD card reader for your digital camera’s SD memory card.

The connectivity options for this computer come in the form of 2 Thunderbolt 3 and 2 standard USB-C sockets. These all support USB Power Delivery which means that they serve as a power input from the laptop’s charger, along with PowerShare “sleep and charge” and DisplayPort alt mode. The fact that this laptop has Thunderbolt 3 connectivity means that it could be connected to better-performing graphics processors installed in external graphics modules and can even lead towards “workstation-grade” graphics once teamed with a “card-cage” graphics module that is kitted out with an NVIDIA Quadro workstation graphics card.

The baseline price for this model intended to be available in the USA in April is expected to be US$1299. Personally I would see the Intel CPU/GPU chipset preparing the path for a slow return of the “multimedia laptop” but in a lightweight manner and with a larger battery.

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Intel premieres the CPU/GPU chip at CES 2018

Articles

Intel Corporation is introducing the 8th Gen Intel Core processor with Radeon RX Vega M Graphics in January 2018. It is packed with features and performance crafted for gamers, content creators and fans of virtual and mixed reality. (Credit: Walden Kirsch/Intel Corporation)

Intel Corporation is introducing the 8th Gen Intel Core processor with Radeon RX Vega M Graphics in January 2018. It is packed with features and performance crafted for gamers, content creators and fans of virtual and mixed reality. (Credit: Walden Kirsch/Intel Corporation)

Intel’s Vega-Powered SoC Debuts In VR-Capable ‘Hades Canyon’ NUC | Tom’s Hardware

Intel launches Coffee Lake CPUs with onboard AMD Radeon RX Vega M GPUs | bit-tech

Intel and AMD Join Forces on Tiny New Chip | Gizmodo

Intel and AMD ally to shrink your next gaming laptop. A lot. |CNet

Intel launches five Core chips with Radeon graphics from rival AMD | PC World

From the horse’s mouth

Intel

8th Generation Intel Core with Radeon RX Vega M Graphics (Product Overview – PDF)

Press Release

Video – Click or tap to play

My Comments

Intel have used the Consumer Electronics Show 2018 to premiere a system-on-chip that is to affect how portable and small-form-factor computers will perform.

This chip, part of the 8th generation of Intel CPUs contains an 8th Generation Core i5 or i7 CPU along with an AMD Radeon RX Vega M discrete graphics processor and an Intel HD 630 integrated graphics processor.

It is positioned in the Intel 8th Generation processor lineup which is like this:

  • U-Series processors that are only equipped with an Intel UHD integrated graphics processor. One of these is installed in the latest iteration of the Dell Inspiron 13 7000 which I reviewed for this site. Here this family of processors is pitched towards what most people will want for their personal and business computing needs.
  • G-Series processors that are also equipped with the above-mentioned Radeon RX Vega M graphics processors. These are pitched as a performance option which would appeal to most gamers, virtual-reality / augmented-reality enthusiasts and content creators who want a machine with that bit of “pep” when it comes to graphics.
  • H-Series processors which are pitched towards those who want the highest performance and would rely on a dedicated graphics processor. Here, they would apply to the gaming rigs and workstations where the goal is for full-on performance.

What is special about these Intel processors

These Intel processors place the Core CPU and the AMD GPU on the same die along with a stack of dedicated graphics RAM and they are linked using the EMIB (Embedded Multi-Die Interconnect Bridge). This arrangement provides a short link between each component to provide for quick data transfer. There is also a power-optimised design to allow for efficient power use by all the components on the chip.

There are two variants of the graphics subsystem available for the chipset known as the GL and the GH. The GL (Graphics Low) variant is optimised with less than 65 watts power draw and is pitched towards “thin-and-light” laptops and the like. The GH (Graphics High) variant is a higher-performance variant that draws less than 100 watts of power and only comes with the Core i7 CPU. Here, it is pitched towards the small-form-factor desktops, all-in-ones and similar computers that normally work from a constant power supply.

All that horsepower in those dies can allow the computer to paint an image across nine display devices at once. The fact that there is an integrated graphics processor on board can allow these “system-on-chip” setups to engage in “performance / economy” switching to maximise power efficiency.

Where are they being premiered in?

The first two variants are the Core i7-8809G CPU with Radeon RX Vega M GH for performance and the Core i7-8705G CPU with Radeon RX Vega M GL as the value option.

These are being released to go with the the Hades Canyon series of “Next Unit Of Computing” small-form-factor computers. Both of these computers are available as a kit which can support 32Gb (2 x 16Gb) DDR4 RAM and 2 M2-compliant solid-state drives. These have plenty of USB connections including 2 Thunderbolt-3 sockets and can connect to your home network via one of two Gigabit Ethernet sockets or 802.11ac Wi-Fi.

What kind of impact do I see these Intel chips have on computer design?

One class of computer that will definitely benefit will be the portable computers that most of us will consider purchasing. The computing press see a benefit when it comes to “enthusiast-class” laptops where they will benefit from a slimmer chassis along with the ability to run in a quiet and cool manner yet deliver the performance they are known for. It will also lead to longer battery runtimes like nine hours even while engaging in high-performance work.

But I see computer manufacturers deploying these CPU/GPU chipsets as the standard expectation for the mainstream 13”-15” home or business laptops that are their “bread and butter” products. Typically these machines have a larger chassis than the ultraportables and are valued by most users for factors like durability, connectivity and ability to choose different configuration options. Here, the manufacturers can design in larger battery packs or extra peripherals like multiple storage devices or optical drives or even improve how these computers sound by using larger speakers.

Let’s not forget that the computer manufacturers could also offer in their ultraportable lineup a run of computer products that are thin and light yet powerful.

As far as sessile computers are concerned, I would see that ultra-small “next unit of computing” units benefit along with the all-in-ones that have the computing electronics part of the screen. Other traditional desktop computers that could also benefit include those that are the same size and shape as typical consumer-electronics devices.

Conclusion

I would see Intel’s 8th-generation “Coffee Lake” G-series CPU/GPU hybrid chip being something that offers greater potential for how the personal computer is designed without losing the desire for more computing power.

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AMD now launches the Ryzen processor for portable computing

Articles – From the horse’s mouth

AMD

Ryzen Processors (Product Page)

Video (Click or tap to play)

My Comments

Just lately, Intel released their 8th generation Kaby Lake R family of “Core i” processors which are targeted at portable computers. These powerful CPUs that were optimised for portable use were issued with an intent to compete against AMD’s upcoming release of their Ryzen processors, pitched at a similar usage scenario. Various press articles even drew attention towards being able to play more powerful PC games on these lightweight computers rather than limiting their scope of activity.

Now AMD have released this silicon which also integrates the Radeon Vega graphics-processing silicon for the laptop market. This is where they are targeting the Ryzen 7 2700U CPU and the Ryzen 5 2500U 15-watt processors and instigating a race against Intel’s Kaby Lake R horsepower and QHD integrated graphics.

What I see of this is that Intel and AMD will make sure that this generation of ultraportable computers will be seen to be more powerful than the prior generations. Think of using an Intel Kaby Lake R Core i7 or AMD Ryzen 7 powered 2-in-1 for most photo-editing tasks or as a “virtual turntable” in the DJ booth, activities that wouldn’t be associated with this class of computer.

At the moment, Intel hasn’t licensed the Thunderbolt 3 connectivity standard across the board including to AMD, which will see it as a limitation when it comes to allow users to upgrade graphics capabilities on their AMD Rysen-equipped laptops using an external graphics module.

One way Intel could approach this is to divest the Thunderbolt standards and intellectual property to an independent working group like the USB.org group so that manufacturers who implement Intel, AMD, the ARM RISC-based vendors like Qualcomm or other silicon can use Thunderbolt 3 as a high-throughput external connectivity option. This could be a way to establish an even playing field for all of the silicon vendors who are providing processor power for all the various computing devices out there.

At least Intel and AMD are taking steps in the right direction towards the idea of mixing portability and power for computing setups based on regular-computer platforms. It may also make this kind of performance become affordable for most people.

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Intel’s 8th Generation CPUs give ultraportable laptops more performance

Articles

Computers like these won’t be considered puny when it comes to what they can do thanks to Intel 8th Generation Core horsepower

HP Unveils Its Most Powerful Detachable PC The ZBook x2 | Gizmodo

Dell gives XPS 13 and Inspiron laptops a boost with Intel’s eighth-generation processors | Windows Central

Four Cores for Ultrabooks: Core i7-8550U Review | TechSpot

From the horse’s mouth

HP

ZBook x2 (Product Page, Press Release)

My Comments

Intel are releasing the eighth-generation lineup of CPU processors which have been considered a major step when it comes to performance from the “engines” that drive your computer. This is affecting the the Core i family of processors which are used in most desktop and laptop computers issued over the last few years.

There are three classes of the 8th Generation lineup – the Coffee Lake which is pitched at desktops, the Cannon Lake which is pitched at mobile applications and the Kaby Lake Refresh which also is pitched at most of the ultraportables including the 2-in-1s.

This class of CPU has impressed me more with the arrival of ultraportable computers, especially 2-in-1 detachables and convertibles, that could do more than what is normally associated with this class of computer.

It is brought about through an increase in the number of “cores” or processor elements installed in the physical chip die, similar to the number of cylinders in your car’s engine which effectively multiply the power available under that hood. In this case, the improvements that Intel were providing were very similar to what happened when the “V” configuration was implemented for engine-cylinder layouts that allowed more power from a relatively-compact engine, allowing the vehicle builder to offer increasingly-powerful engines for the same vehicle design.

In this case, there was the ability to use low-power processors like 15-watt designs with the increased “cores” but not sacrifice battery runtime or yield too much waste heat. This opened up the capability for an ultraportable or tablet to be able to do more without becoming underpowered while running for a long time on battery power.

For example, HP just released the ZBook x2 detachable tablet computer which has the kind of power that would work with advanced graphics and allied programs. Some could see this as a typical detachable tablet that could be considered not so powerful but this handheld workstation can use these programs thanks to use of the Intel 8th Generation Core i7 Kaby Lake R processor and NVIDIA Quadro discrete graphics. There is even the option to have it specified with 32Gb of RAM.

Then there’s Dell who have refreshed their XPS and Inspiron ultraportables with Intel 8th-generation horsepower with the XPS 13 benefiting from that extra performance, making the whole XPS 13 clamshell Ultrabook lineup show its relevance more.

What is to happen with the ultraportables is that you won’t need to think of them as being unfit for heavy-duty computing tasks while on the road. You may even find that you could do things like watch a season of downloaded TV episodes or play an intense round of Civilization 6 while you are flying one of the new Qantas non-stop long-distance flights to London or Los Angeles without worrying about the battery dying out.

It will be up to the software vendors to make games and other software that take advantage of these high-performance 2-in-1 computers by exploiting the touchscreens and the higher power offered by these machines. How about a Civilization, SimCity, one of the mobile “guilty-secret” games, or more being available through the Microsoft Store for one to install on that 2-in-1?

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WD cracks the 14 Terabyte barrier for a standard desktop hard disk

Article HGST UltraStar HS14 14Tb hard disk press image courtesy of Western Digital

Western Digital 14TB hard drive sets storage record | CNet

From the horse’s mouth

HGST by Western Digital

Ultrastar HS14 14Tb hard disk

Product Page

Press Release

My Comments

Western Digital had broken the record for data stored on a 3.5” hard disk by offering the HGST by WD UltraStar HS14 hard disk.

This 3.5” hard disk is capable of storing 14Tb of data and has been seen as a significant increase in data-density for disk-based mechanical data storage. It implements HelioSeal construction technology which yields a hermetically-sealed enclosure filled with helium that leads to thinner disks which also permit reduced cost, cooling requirements and power consumption.

At the moment, this hard disk is being pitched at heavy-duty enterprise, cloud and data-center computing applications rather than regular desktop or small-NAS applications. In this use case, I see that these ultra-high-capacity hard disks earn their keep would be localised data-processing applications where non-volatile secondary storage is an important part of the equation.

Such situations would include content-distribution networks such as the Netflix application or edge / fog computing applications where data has to be processed and held locally. Here, such applications that are dependent on relatively-small devices that can be installed close to where the data is created or consumed like telephone exchanges, street cabinets, or telecommunications rooms.

I would expect that this level of data-density will impact other hard disks and devices based on these hard disks. For example, applying it to the 2.5” hard-disk form factor could see these hard disks approaching 8Tb or more yielding highly capacious compact storage devices. Or that this same storage capacity is made available for hard drives that suit regular desktop computers and NAS units.

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Security flaw found in HP laptop audio driver software–how to fix it

Article

HP Elitebook Folio laptop press picture courtesy of HP

Check that your driver software is up to date on these HP business laptops.

HP issues fix for ‘keylogger’ found on several laptop models | ZDNet

Keylogger Found in Audio Driver of HP Laptops | BleepingComputer

From the horse’s mouth

Hewlett-Packard

Download site – identify your computer’s model number in the form on this site to obtain a list of the relevant software

My Comments and further information

Just lately, a security weakness had been found in the Conexant HD Audio driver software that was delivered to a large number of recently-issued HP business-tier laptop computers. It may also affect some of their consumer-focused laptops that run this driver. Let’s not forget the reality that some of you may have one of the affected HP business laptops as a consumer-tier computer, perhaps due to buying an ex-lease or surplus unit. This weakness affects driver versions 10.0.46 and prior versions.

The problem manifests with the MicTray64 program that comes with this software package. Here, it is a keyboard monitor that listens for particular keystrokes in order to allow the user to control the computer’s integrated microphone. But, thanks to debug code being left in the production release of this software, the software becomes a keylogger, writing keystrokes to a cleartext logfile (MicTray.log) in the Users\Public folder on the computer’s system drive.

But what is a monitor program for those of you who want to know? It is a program that “listens” to activity from or to a peripheral for a particular event then instigates a pre-defined activity when a particular event occurs. In most cases, you see these programs in operation when you use a printer or scanner with your computer and they show up a print-job status message when you print or catch scan jobs you started from your scanner’s control surface.

If you have this version of the Conexant HD Audio driver software on your HP business laptop, you may have to use Task Manager to kill the MicTray64 keyboard-monitor process, as well as removing it from the Scheduled Tasks list. It may also be worth moving the MicTray64.exe file out of the Windows\System32 folder and the MicTray.log file out of the Users\Public folder on the system disk to somewhere else on your computer’s file system and see if the computer is still stable and, if so, delete those files.

An update that rectifies this problem has been made available on the HP.com driver download site but should also be made available through Windows Update. This will be available on Wednesday 10 May 2017 (US Pacific Time) for those machines made since 2016 and on Friday 12 May 2017 (US Pacific Time) for systems made during 2015.

HP may have software installed on these systems to check for newer versions of the software drivers, which may simplify the process of updating your computer’s drivers and firmware.

This is endemic of a situation where driver software and system firmware is rushed out the door without being checked that it is production-ready and good-quality software. This software ends up as part of the distribution software image that comes with newer computer equipment, including appearing on the recovery partition of your computer’s system disk.

A good practice is to regularly check your computer manufacturer’s Website for newer drivers and firmware for your computer at regular intervals and install this software. This practice will allow you to have a computer that runs in a more secure and stable manner, perhaps gaining some extra functionality that answers current requirements along the way.

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Designing for highly-compatible Internet Of Things

Article

D-Link DCH-3150 myDLink motion sensor

Smart Home and Internet Of Things devices need to be designed for compatibility and security before they become popular

How to bring true interoperability to the Internet of Things | Network World

My Comments

Increasingly, the concept of the “smart home” or Internet Of Things is becoming very real. Here, we are seeing a lot more consumer-electronics devices, home appliances and similar devices become connected to the home network and the Internet.

The “app-cessory” approach to network-controlled devices, where the only way to control these devices via your home network is through a manufacturer-supplied mobile-platform app, has now had its day. This typically asked that the device to be connected to your iOS or Android smartphone or tablet using one of three paths: a Bluetooth connection to the mobile device in the same vein as a Bluetooth headset; a Wi-Fi network created by the device that is controlled by the mobile-platform device; or the home network’s Wi-Fi segment.

The trend that is affecting these devices is to interlink them with a platform-based voice-driven “home assistant” of the Amazon Alexa or Google Home ilk. Here, the requirement is for the manufacturer to provide a “skill” or something similar to the “home-assistant” platform so that Alexa, for example, can interact with the device.

But the article is now highlighting the requirement for increased compatibility with the Internet Of Things. This is where the same device can operate across a range of different network setups and operating platforms.

Use of highly-capable hardware interfaces at the media-connection level

A direction that has assured “out-of-the-box” interoperability for regular-class and mobile-class computer devices along with an increasing number of consumer-electronics devices is to implement one or more multi-mode front-ends when handling the different interface types.

In the case of radio, it can mean being able to handle Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee or similar technologies concurrently.With the wired networks, it would be about working with different media protocols over the same kind of wire, being Cat5 unshielded twisted pair, TV-antenna coaxial cable, AC wires used to power your appliances or traditional telephone wires.

Devolo Home Control Central Unit (Zentrale) press photo courtesy of Devolo

Devolo Home Control Central unit connected to router

In the case of a wireless connection, this is represented by the use of Bluetooth for peripheral-class device connection and Wi-Fi wireless networking to the latest standard for connecting to the home network and the Internet. Smartphones and some tablets will also implement a mobile-broadband modem that works across recent cellular mobile-telephony standards as well. As well, some consumer-electronics devices may implement a multifunction radio front-end that supports Zigbee or Z-Wave, typically to provide support for an RF-based remote control.

There are a significant number of “smart-home” or “Internet Of Things” devices that are designed to work solely with Bluetooth, Zigbee or Z-Wave. Examples of these range from temperature sensors, smart locks and movement sensors. These devices, typically battery-operated devices, use one of these technologies because of the fact that they are very thrifty on battery power thus allowing them to work on up to 3 AA Duracells or a 3V “pill-size” battery for months at an end or to work only on “harvested” power like kinetic energy.

But, if they want to liaise with your home network and the Internet, they have to deal with a gateway device that links between them and the home network. It is because, at the time of writing, no-one has effectively brought a Wi-Fi-capable single-mode or multimode radio front-end chipset that permits a battery-operated device to work in a power-efficient manner.

But another approach being called for is to have an Internet gateway device i.e. a home or small-business router being equipped with support for Bluetooth, Zigbee and / or Z-Wave along with Wi-Fi and Cat5 Ethernet for the home network. To the same extent, a Wi-Fi infrastructure device like an access point or range extender could simply be a bridge between other radio-network types like Zigbee or Bluetooth and the home network facilitated by the Wi-Fi or wired home-network connection.

Some manufacturers even have an “IoT hub” or gateway that links their Bluetooth, Zigbee or Z-Wave devices to your home network via an Ethernet connection. Here, this is offered as part of enabling their devices for online control via a Web dashboard or mobile-platform app. The current situation with most of these hubs is that they have the online-service hub that works with the manufacturer’s device.

There needs to be the ability to facilitate setups involving multiple gateways that link the home network with Zigbee or similar “IoT” radio segments. This is a reality with most of these devices being limited in their radio coverage in order to conserve battery power because they are expected to run on a commodity battery supply like two or three AA Duracells for months at a time or, in some cases, work on harvested electrical energy. You may find that having one of the gateways located near an IoT endpoint device like a smart lock may assure reliable connected operation from that device.

In these setups, there needs to be the ability to see a collection of these “IoT-specific” radio segments as one logical segment, along with the ability to discover and enumerate each device no matter which gateway or bridge device it is connected to and what kind of networks is used as the backbone.

Flexible software to the application level

Kwikset Kevo cylindrical deadbolt in use - Kwikset press image

To provide extended monitoring and control to the Kwikset Kevo deadbolt, you have to use a Bluetooth bridge supplied by Kwikset

Another issue raised regarding the Internet Of Things is compatibility across multiple software platforms and protocols.

A design practice that has been known to be successful was for recent network-connected home-AV equipment like Wi-Fi wireless speakers to support Apple AirPlay, Google Chromecast and DLNA “out of the box”. Here, you could stream content to these devices using most computer devices, whether it be your iPhone, Android tablet or Windows computer, or whether it is hosted on your NAS device.

Here, the goal is for a device to support many different software platforms, frameworks and protocols that are needed to do its job. To the same extent, it could be feasible for a device to work with different cloud services like Google Home, Amazon Alexa or IFTTT. What this can mean is that a device can work with different control and display surfaces from different manufacturers. It also means that the data that a piece of equipment shares is set in a known standard so that any software developer working on an IoT project can make use of this data in their code.

For example, the Open Connectivity Foundation’s standards which include the UPnP standards and are supported by the “open-frame” computing community, along with the Apple HomeKit framework will be required to be supported by network-connected devices.

Here, it will be about identifying every one of the standards supported by the physical medium that the IoT device uses to link with other devices and the network. Then implementing all of the current standards supported by that medium in a vendor-agnostic manner.

Secure by design

An issue that has been raised recently is the issue of data security practices implemented by the software that runs Internet-Of-Things and dedicated-purpose devices. Situations that have come to the fore include the Mirai botnet that scoped in network videosurveillance cameras and home-network routers to perform distributed denial-of-service attacks against online resources like the Krebs On Security Website and the DNS records held by Dyn, a dynamic-DNS provider, affecting a large number of Internet household names.

Here, the issue being called out is designing the software in this class of device for security along with a continual software-maintenance cycle. But it also includes the implementation of secure-software-execution practices not uncommon with the latest desktop and mobile operating systems. This includes secure-boot, trusted-execution and sandboxing to prevent unwanted code from running along with data-in-transit protection and authentication at the network level.

The concept of a continual software-maintenance approach where the firmware and other software associated with the Internet Of Things is always updated with these updates installed “in the field” as they are available, allows for the removal of software bugs and security exploits as they become known. It also allows the software to be “tuned” for best performance and manufacturers can even roll out newer functionality for their devices.

In some cases, it could even lead to a device being compatible with newer and revised standards and protocols rather than seeing one that ends up being limited because it doesn’t support the newer better protocol. But there can be the question about this kind of software update being used as a way to enforce unpopular device-design requirements upon an existing installed base of devices and changes how they operate. This could be brought about by a government mandate or an industry expectation, such as an eco-requirement for HVAC equipment required by a state energy-conservation department or a digital-rights-management expectation required at the behest of Hollywood.

To make the IoT hardware and software ecosystem work properly, there needs to be an underscored requirement for compatibility with prior and newer devices along with the ability to work securely and with properly-maintained software.

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